SYMBOLS and their Meaning
Occult symbols are fast replacing Christian symbols in our culture. Therefore, we encourage you to use this list to warn others, especially Christian children who intentionally wear and display them because they are popular.
Keep in mind that many of these symbols have double or multiple meanings. For example, the pentagram has been used to transmit occult power in all kinds of rituals for centuries, but to Christians the same shape may simply represent a star -- a special part of God's creation. The image of a fish may mean a sign of the zodiac (astrology) to some, but to Christians it has meant following Jesus and sharing the message of His love. We will continue to delight in the cross, while recognizing that others use the same image to represent their dark forces.
Please don't pass judgment on those who happen to wear these symbols. Instead, let us seek God’s will and discernment so that we might all honor Him with our lives. Remember, "each of us shall give account of himself to God. Therefore let us not judge one another anymore, but rather resolve this, not to put a stumbling block. . . in our brother's way." (Romans 14:12-13)
EYE in top Triangle of the PYRAMID: Masonic symbol for the all-seeing eye of god - an mystical distortion of the omniscient (all-knowing) Biblical God. You can find it on the $1 bill. See triangle, Eye of Horus, the Franklin Institute website, and the symbol for the U.S. government's new Total Information Awareness (TIA) System. See also The Revolutionary Roots of the UN
ALCHEMY 1: This simple 17th century "sign" illustrates the blending of geometric shapes, elemental symbols and astrological signs. Each part representing the various "elements" and forces needed for magical work in the quest for physical transformation and spiritual illumination and immortality. Many medieval alchemists based their philosophies on mystical traditions rooted in the Kabbala (Jewish mysticism), Hermetic magic and the occult practices of ancient civilizations such as Egypt and China. See Philosopher's stone and phoenix. Compare it with the next symbol:
|ALCHEMY 2: This compound "magical-alchemical symbol" replaces the above triangle with a hexagram and adds more shapes within the magical circle: a cross [in this context it become an occult counterfeit) and an additional circle with the Hindu "Bindu" (dot in the center) at the bottom of the hexagram.|
A magic charm (such as this little Navajo bear earring), worn to bring good
luck and protection against illness, accidents and evil forces. Don't believe
|ANARCHY: Popular among school aged children today, this symbol for anarchy fits the message that pervades the most popular video games, role-playing games, movies and television. The lines of the "A" often extend outside the circle. To many satanists and other fast-growing occult groups it represents their slogan, "do what thou wilt." A former occultist explained that it represents the ASMODEAS: a demonic force driving teenagers toward sexual perversion and suicide.|
|ANKH: An Egyptian cross symbolizing a mythical eternal life, rebirth, and the life-giving power of the sun.|
|ANGEL: Symbol of good and evil spirits in religions around the world. This picture shows a Tibetan guardian angel. For a comparison between Biblical angels and occult angels read Chapter 8 in A Twist of Faith. For a summary, see Touched by an Angel.|
|ARROW: These two pictures shows the astrological sign for the archer (Sagittarius) -- part of the zodiac. But, through history, the arrow has also symbolized war, power, swiftness, the rays of the sun, knowledge... as well as deities such as the Greek god Apollo and goddess Artemis (both hunters), the Hindu weather god, Rudra; and various gods of sexual attraction: Eros (Greek), Cupid (Roman), Kama (Hindu).... On ancient Roman coins, it represented the Zoroastrian god, Mithra. The native American Cheyenne warriors revered the "sacred medicine arrows" as symbols of male power. Arrows held by skeletons would point to disease or death. Today, they usually just point in the preferred direction.|
|Crystal (Gazing) BALL: Used for divination (fortunetelling, scrying, clairvoyance...). When the heavy crystal balls were too expensive, witches often used glass-ball fishing floats, colored glass balls, or magic mirrors. One website that markets these balls beckons: 'Why not buy one and try your own free psychic reading."|
|BAT: A symbol of good fortune in the East, it represented demons and spirits in medieval Europe.|
|BLAIR WITCH: A five-pointed compound symbol with a center triangle pointing down. The five lines resemble the microcosmic man with arms and legs outstretched inside a circle (with a pentagram in the background)-- a magic symbol or charm among medieval alchemists and wizards.|
BUTTERFLY: Reminds Christians of the amazing transformation that takes place through Christ's redemption and regeneration. When "born again," we become "a new creation." (2 Cor. 5:17) To many pagans, its mythical meaning is linked to the soul (of the deceased) in search of reincarnation. See the new, politically correct meaning at Butterfly 208: "There's a theory that says if a single butterfly flaps its wings in, say, China, the air disturbance may cause a storm in Nunavut, Canada a month later. If that's the case, imagine the power of your own ideas and others to help improve the quality of life in the world's 208 countries! The Butterfly 208 contest is a chance for you to create your own Butterfly effect! 208 = Number of Countries in the World Butterfly + 208 = A totally interconnected world! A world where even small actions can have a big effect."
"Sacred" BULL (Egyptian idol): These ancient Egyptian idols -- once worshipped as manifestations of gods -- are being revived. We have deleted a smaller (commercial) bull with horns resemble a crescent moon supporting the divine sun disc. Some suggest that this combination -- like the Chinese yin yang -- may symbolize a mythical duality: a union of opposites such as light/dark, sun/moon, life/death, and male/female.
God told His people long ago, "Do not defile yourselves with the idols of Egypt." But they ignored His warning and faced devastating consequences for refusing to "cast away the abominations which were before their eyes." (Ez. 20:7-8)
|CADUCEUS (The Staff of Hermes): An ancient symbol dating back to the Greek messenger god Hermes (the Romans called him Mercury). "In Indian philosophy and medicine the Caduceus is intimately associated with the system of energy centers called Chakras....The 2 serpents coiling around the staff [represent positive and negative forces like] the Yang and Yin of Chinese Medicine.The crossing over of the 2 serpents creates 5 energy fields in the body." Polarity Therapy (See Reiki and Rick Warren's Risky Health Plan)|
|CHAOS: Apparently a self-made form of occultism taught through role-playing games such as Warhammer. According to one WH fan, "Chaos is the opposite of order. Since everything changes, there is no right or no wrong -- only the quest for pleasure. The 8-pointed star represents the many different directions of chaos and the many ways you can follow it. We worship deamons and angels..." Another comment: "They got it from Elric of Melnibone. In it, the force of Chaos had as its symbol an eight-pointed double-cross (symbols within symbols) with points representing the noncommittal and omnidirectional behavior of Chaos." See Chaos Magic. However, other Warhammer fans disagree with the quote above. Read more here.|
|CIRCLE (sun disc, sacred hoop, ring): An ancient and universal symbol of unity, wholeness, infinity, the goddess, female power, and the sun. To earth-centered religions throughout history as well as to many contemporary pagans, it represents the feminine spirit or force, the cosmos or a spiritualized Mother Earth, and a sacred space. (See next item) Gnostic traditions linked the unbroken circle to the "world serpent" forming a circle as it eats its own tail. (See serpent)|
|CIRCUMPUNCT - CIRCLE with DOT (BINDU) in the center: It represents the sun and a sun god (called Ra in Egypt), gold (as in alchemy), an (unbiblical) archangel (Kabbalah), emotional restraint (Freemasons), and the creative spark of divine consciousness within people linking everyone to the creative mind of a universal "god" thus making each persona "co-creator" (astrology). In the complex symbolic system of Hinduism and Buddhism, the bindu (dot) represents the male force. Together, the circle and the bindu symbolize the spiritual merging of male and female forces. (See Sun Sign and the above explanation for CIRCLE)|
|CIRCLE (Quartered): The sacred circle filled with a cross, four equal lines pointing from the center to the spirits of the north, east, south, and west -- or to the basic element: earth, water, air (or wind), and fire. In Native American traditions, it forms the basic pattern of the MEDICINE WHEEL and plays a vital part in major spiritual rituals. Many contemporary pagans consider it their main symbol for transmitting the energy of the goddess. (See sun wheel) Churches have used variations of the same popular shape, usually calling it the Celtic Cross.|
|Masonic COMPASS: The Masonic symbol of the compass and the T-square represents movement toward perfection and a balance between the spiritual and physical which resembles Egyptian and oriental mysticism. The compass (used to form circles) represent spirit. The ruler (part of a square) represent the physical. Some public schools pass out pencil cases and other gifts decorated with this emblem.|
|COW: It symbolized the sky goddess Hathor to Egyptians, enlightenment to Buddhists, one of the highest and holiest stages of transmigration (reincarnation) to Hindus.|
|CRESCENT MOON: A symbol of the aging goddess (crone) to contemporary witches and victory over death to many Muslims. In Islamic lands, crescent can be seen enclosing a lone pentagram.|
To grasp the significance of the Cross and its cost to our crucified and risen Savior, see The Cross.
The CROSS of Christians: While anyone--even pagans--now use the cross as decoration or as an occult symbol, Christians must continue to treasure the cross of Calvary. But be careful what kind of cross you wear - and what message you communicate to others. To understand the Christian significance of the cross and appreciate its excruciating cost to our crucified and resurrected Christ, read The Triumph of the Cross and "The Cross".
Inverted cross: Originally represented the apostle Peter's humility in his martyrdom. He insisted that he be crucified upside-down, because he felt that he was unworthy to die in the same position as Christ. But today, especially in the rock music culture, it generally represents the opposite: satanism and its mockery of Christ. Lucifer continues to twist God's wonderful truths and works into lies and deceptions.
|COMMUNISM: Originally the hammer and sickle represented a hammer and a plough -- the collective unity of Soviet workers and peasant farmers. It's interesting to see its resemblance to Islam's symbol (crescent/star). The two ideologies have had much in common: hatred for Biblical Christianity and Jews (remember the Russian pogroms), readiness to kill those who don't conform, hope of world conquest, etc.|
CELTIC CROSS: The symbol for a cultural blend of medieval Catholicism and ancient Celtic traditions. Sometimes this cross is seen with four additional "arms" dividing the circle into eight instead of four sections.
Notice the similarity between the old Celtic cross and the cross designed by PBS (tax-funded Public Broadcasting in the U.S.) to represent Christianity (left side). Do you wonder why PBS would choose a similar cross (right side) to represent the Quartered Circle of the earth-centered religions of Aborigenes around the world?
The Celtic cross also represents the neo-pagan followers of the French anti-Christian philosopher Alain de Benoist.
|JERUSALEM CROSS: In medieval heraldry, it symbolized the "Crusader's Kingdom of Jerusalem" often displayed on shields and banners after the initial victory in the battle to recapture Jerusalem during the Crusades. (See the Maltese Cross). Some have linked the four corner crosses the "holy" wounds of Jesus or the four gospels. Similar shapes can be found on Hindu and Buddhist temples or coins -- and in various earth-centered cultures -- with entirely different sets of meanings. (See circle for relevant references to the four directions)|
|IRON CROSS (or Cross Pattée or EISERNES KREUZ): Adopted as the Iron Cross in Prussia. During the First World War, it appeared on German fighter planes and tanks. Later, it became a fascist symbol in France, Portugal and other nations. Compare it with Swastika 3.|
|CROSS (MALTESE): CROSS (MALTESE): This eight-pointed cross (linking the points of four arrowheads at the center) dates back to the First Crusade in the 12th century. It was used by the Knights Templar, the Knights of Malta, and the Order of St. John of Jerusalem among others. In 1813, during the War of Liberation against Napoleon, it was revived by Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm III and became an award for acts of heroism, bravery or leadership skills.|
|Double-headed EAGLE: A Masonic seal and initiation symbol. The number inside the pyramid over the eagle's head is 33. The eagle is a universal symbol representing the sun, power, authority, victory, the sky gods and the royal head of a nation.|
It sometimes accompanies other symbols occasionally representing the world's
vision of universal peace, such as the rainbow, olive branch, broken cross
(see peace), globe, and
Egyptian ankh. See
Culture of Peace,
which tells us that "'The CULTURE OF PEACE Initiative' is a United Nations-designated
'Peace Messenger Initiative' - with Participants in all the world's regions."
In the Bible, the Holy Spirit is, for a moment, made visible as a different kind of dove. It tells us that "Jesus also was baptized; and while He prayed, the heaven was opened. And the Holy Spirit descended in bodily form like a dove upon Him, and a voice came from heaven which said, 'You are My beloved Son; in You I am vwell pleased.'” Luke 3:21-22
|DRAGON : A mythical monster made up of many animals: serpent, lizard, bird, lion... It may have many heads and breath fire. To mediaeval Europe, it was dangerous and evil, but people in Eastern Asia believe it has power to help them against more hostile spiritual forces. In the Bible it represents Satan, the devil.|
American Indian magic spider-web inside a sacred circle. After making dreamcatchers
in crafts lessons in school, many children hang them on or near their beds.
They have been told that these occult symbols will block bad dreams but
allow good dreams to pass through the center. Don't believe that myth! [See
The four basic elements to many pagans are earth,
water, air (wind or spirit) and fire. Many consider the first two passive
and feminine - and the last two active and masculine. In Wiccan or Native
American rituals, the "quartered circle"
(also the Medicine Wheel) represents a "sacred space" or the sacred earth.
The four lines may represent the spirits of the four primary directions
or the spirits of the earth, water, wind and fire.
(This set of elements differs from those used in alchemy.)
|ETERNITY: See Infinity and Uruborus|
|EVIL EYE: The symbol of a dreadful, fabled curse (believed to bring sickness, death, bad luck loss...). This "evil eye" has frightened people in many parts of the world through the centuries. Here it looks like a female eye on the "Hand of Fatima," but its shape varies with the culture.|
EYE OF HORUS: A favorite crafts project in schools, it represents the eye of Egyptian sun-god Horus who lost an eye battling Set. Pagans use it as a charm to ward off evil. (See All-Seeing Eye)
Notice that the picture shows a compound symbol - several symbols joined together to give a more complex meaning. It includes an unbiblical cross and, at the bottom, part of a face inside the rays of the sun. (See Sun)
FISH (Ichthys): Sometimes this early Christian symbol contains the name of JESUS or this set of Greek letters: "ΙΧΘΥΣ". This acronym has traditionally referred to "Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior." It probably served as an identification sign among Christians as early as the 2nd Century AD. As Jesus said, "Follow Me and I will make you fishers of men." (Matt. 4:19) (A new version of this fish symbol contains the name of Darwin and is designed to mock Christianity.)
|FLEUR-DE-LIS: Also called Lily of France, it was first an adaptation of the Gaulish lily representing the Virgin Juno. Among goddess worshippers, it apparently had several meanings, including the Triple Goddess. It appeared in Arthurian legends as well as on the French (and other national) "coat-of-arms" and royal or military emblems. It has also been an emblem for the Boy Scouts.|
|FROG: A symbol of fertility to many cultures. The Romans linked it to Aphrodite, the Egyptian to the shape-shifting goddess Heket who would take the form of a frog. To the Chinese, it symbolized the moon -- "the lunar, yin principle" bringing healing and prosperity. Since frogs need watery places, their image was often used in occult rain charms.|
|HAND OF FATIMA (daughter of Muhammad) or KHAMSA (five): Many Muslims believe that the image of the hand with an eye in the center will protect them from the "evil eye." While this symbol often appears on magical charms, amulets, and jewelry, it is seen in many other places. See a similar image painted next to the main door to a home here. This Khamsa seems to be the same as the Jewish Hasma (below). Many serious Muslims view this as folklore or superstition. See comments, corrections and explanations HERE. Compare it with the next symbol:|
|HAND OF FATIMA or HAMSA (five): Jewish versions of the supposed "hand" of protection (above) from "evil eye" (Some expect protection from demons and sorcerers as well). During the Israelites' exile in Babylonian, some began to blend Old Testament beliefs with Babylonian myths and mysticism. Such syncretism continued through the centuries. One of its manifestations was the mystical Kabbalah -- the heart of many streams of modern occultism (including the Order of the Golden Dawn and other secret societies, Tarot cards and divination, etc.)|
|HAND OF... what? Native American version of two above symbols. Found on a flat, round sandstone disk during the excavation of an old Indian mound in Alabama, its original meaning is lost. Perhaps it was used in rituals preparing for tribal wars.|
|HEARTAGRAM: Originally a logo of "Love Metal" band, HIM, whose fans would wear the symbol --within a circle -- as a tattoo. But it's popularity has spread far beyond the band that designed it. To many, it represent the dialectic or blending of opposites such as love/hate and life/death. See Pentagram, Popular Occultism and Yin yang|
|HEXAGRAM (see triangles) or SIX-POINTED STAR: When surrounded by a circle, it represents the "divine mind" (a counterfeit of God's wisdom) to numerous occult groups through the centuries. Many still use it in occult rituals. But to Jewish people -- without the surrounding circle -- it is their Star of David.|
|HOOK 'EM HORNS & HORNED HAND (Mano Cornuto): "President Bush's 'Hook 'em, horns' salute got lost in translation in Norway, where shocked people interpreted his hand gesture during his inauguration as a salute to Satan. That's what it means in the Nordics when you throw up the right hand with the index and pinky fingers raised, a gesture popular among heavy metal groups and their fans in the region....'Shock greeting from Bush daughter,' a headline in the Norwegian Internet newspaper Nettavisen said." "Norwegians Confused by Bush Salute"|
|INFINITY (also eternity): In ancient India and Tibet, it represented perfection, dualism, and unity between male and female. In the occult tarot it's linked to magic and represents equilibrium or the balance of various forces. The uroborus (a circular serpent biting its tail -- a UN symbol for "Human Settlements") has been found in this shape. In modern times, it became a secular mathematical symbol for infinity in numbers, time or space.|
|ITALIAN HORN (Cornu, Cornicello, Wiggly Horn, Unicorn horn, Lucifier's horn or Leprechaun staff). The ancient magical charm or amulet worn in Italy as protection against "evil eye" has also been linked to Celtic and Druid myths and beliefs. Other superstitions link it to sexual power and good luck. It is often worn with a cross (for double protection or luck?). In pre-Christian Europe, animal horns pointed to the moon goddess and were considered sacred.|
|KABALLAH (Kabbala, Cabala, Qabala, etc....): See|
|LABYRINTH: “...predate Christianity by over a millennium. The most famous labyrinth from ancient times was in Crete... the supposed lair of the mythological Minotaur.... Turf labyrinths still exist in England, Germany and Scandinavia, and are thought to be linked with local feminine deities and fertility rituals.... The patterns of the labyrinth are similar in design and conception to the mandalas of South Asian Buddhism, which are physical representations of the spiritual realm designed to aid in meditation. Labyrinths blend their visual symbolism with the process of walking, which is similar to the Japanese Zen practice of kinhin, literally 'walking meditation... In the early 90’s, when Jean Houston, one of the leading New Age teachers, introduced the Christian world again to the use of this practice for seeking spiritual enlightenment through walking the labyrinth." Steve Muse, Esoteric Christianity|
LIGHTNING BOLT: In ancient mythologies from many cultures (Norse, Roman, Greek, Native American, etc.) the lighting bolt would be hurled by male sky gods to punish, water, or fertilize the earth or its creatures. Navajo myths linked it to the Thunderbird, the symbol of salvation and divine gifts. On children's toys, it represents supernatural power. Double bolts, popular with contemporary skinheads, symbolize Nazi power.
LION: An ancient symbol of the sun, dominion, power, ferocity and bravery, the "king of the beasts" was often used on heraldic shields, flags or banners by medieval European rulers. In Tarot cards, an occult system of divination based on the Kabala, it symbolized strength or power. In ancient mythology it was identified with sun worship and the imagined power of both gods and godesses. The lion head ringed by its golden mane would used in ancient mystery initiations and ritualistic sun worship.
While pagan nations used it to represent their mythical views of reality, the lion was created by God. In the Bible, we see how He used it for His purposes.
|LIZARD: Its "sun-seeking habit symbolizes the soul's search for awareness." To the Romans, who believed it hibernated, the lizard meant death and resurrection.|
Magic MIRROR: Used for "scrying" (foretelling the future, solve problems, answer questions....) The preferred spectrum might decorated with "magic signs" during full moon rituals. Rosemary Ellen Guiley explains: "The ancient art of clairvoyance achieved by concentrating upon an object-- usually one with a shiny surface-- until visions appear....The term scrying comes from the English words descry which means 'to make out dimly' or 'to reveal." The Encyclopedia of Witches and Witchcraft, 307.
|MANDALA: The Hindu term for circle. In Hindu and Buddhist meditations, it is used to raise consciousness. In meditation, the person fixes his or her mind on the center of the "sacred circle." Geometric designs are common. The center of some mandalas show a triangle with a bindu (dot) inside a circle. It represents the merging of male and female forces.|
|MASONS (Freemasons): The Masonic symbol of the compass and the T-square represents movement toward perfection and a balance between the spiritual and physical which resembles Egyptian and oriental mysticism. The compass (used to form circles) represent spirit. The ruler (part of a square) represent the physical. Some public schools pass out pencil cases and other gifts decorated with this emblem. See All-Seeing Eye, Eye of Horus, and Dreamcatcher. Read "Masonic Centers are dream catchers," "The Masonic Lodge, then "Brotherhood of Darkness" by Dr. Stan Monteith.|
|MASK: Used by pagans around the world to represent animal powers, nature spirits, or ancestral spirits. In pagan rituals, the wearer may chant, dance and enter a trance in order to contact the spirit world and be possessed by the spirit represented by the mask. The mask pictured represents the mythical Hindu elephant god, Ganesha.|
|MEDICINE SHIELD: A round shield decorated with personal symbols or pictures of the animal spirit(s) contacted on a Spirit Quest or through a classroom visualization simulating an American Indian ceremony. Its basic image is often the form of the "medicine wheel" or quartered circle. [See The Earth Charter's Unholy Ark]|
|MERMAID: Based on ancient myths in India, Greece, Syria, Africa and other parts of the world. Seen by some cultures as sea goddesses, these seductive beings guarded treasures, frightened travelers, and were eventually featured in alchemy and other occult practices as well as in fairy tales. By medieval times, the alluring Sirens of Homer's days had apparently evolved into a promiscuous split-tailed versions that symbolized mystical sex to alchemists and secret societies. German legends describe a mystical Nixie -- a fish-tailed female water spirits, daughter of "Mother Night." In our times, the more benign fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen and Disney Studios have generally erased any cultural memory of those occult roots.|
|MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD (MB): Featuring the Koran at the top, it reminds us that MB stands ready to use their swords to defend their militant beliefs against anyone who refuses to bow to their Islamic ideology. Their agenda is Jihad, and their goal is a global Caliphate. That means constant readiness to fight the enemies of God -- until a world-wide victory is theirs. Please read the history of the MB here: The Nazi/Arab plots to exterminate Jews|
|OIC: Organization of Islamic Cooperation: The new OIC logo with a green instead of red crescent. The old name was Organization of the Islamic Conference. The new green crescent enfolds the planet. In the center is a tiny image of the Ka’aba, Islam's most sacred site in Mecca. According to the OIC, this is a “a drastic positive change in the performance of the organization to uplift its effectiveness as an international system dealing with political, economic, cultural and social development issues.” Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev described the OIC as “the U.N. of the Islamic world.”|
|U.S. Missile Defense Agency Logo: Does this military logo remind you of the Islamic crescent and star? Or President Obama's campaign symbol, with it blue curve and three converging red lines? But the similarity may not be intentional: New government logo|
|OM: Sanskrit letters or symbol for the "sacred" Hindu sound om (ohm or aum) called "the mother of all mantras. Apparently, the four parts symbolize four stages of consciousness: Awake, sleeping, dreaming, and a trance or transcendental state. [See Heresy in high places]|
OWL: Cherokee [Indian] shamans viewed Eastern Screech-Owls as consultants on punishment and sickness. The Cree believed that the whistle-sounds of the Boreal Owl was a summoning call to the spirit world. Other Native American traditions hold that the owl represents vision and insight. In Africa the owl is associated with witchcraft and sorcery. Australia, China, Greenland, India, Indonesia, Japan, Russia and Sweden all have cultures or mythical traditions that give spiritual significance to the owl. Probably one of the most bizarre occurrences of owl symbolism can be found at the "Bohemian Club." Find this and more information at Wise Old Owl
PEACE SYMBOL or a BROKEN UPSIDE-DOWN CROSS: Like many simple symbols, it meant different things at different times. Some call it Nero's cross, linking it to the notorious Roman emperor who persecuted Christians. Centuries later, it was recognized as an old Norse Rune. [Notice its image in the lower left corner of this ancient rune stone. Its reverse image is under the nose of the serpent.] Vikings called it "Toten Rune (Death Rune)," while some Germanic people labeled it Todesrune (Rune of Death). After WW2 (1939-1945), it was found on the tombstones of certain Hitler's SS troops and labeled 'The Dead Man Rune.' [Reference to bottom image of Scandinavian runes at 
Revived in the sixties by hippies and others who protested nuclear weapons, Western culture, and Christian values, it became a worldwide symbol of a new age of global peace and earth-centered unity. But many heavy metal rock fans would agree with Nero and have used it to mock Christ and His followers.
|PENTACLE or PENTAGRAM (FIVE-POINTED STAR pointing up): A standard symbol for witches, freemasons, and many other pagan or occult groups. To witches, it represent the four basic elements (wind, water, earth and fire) plus a pantheistic spiritual being such as Gaia or Mother Earth. The pentagram is also "used for protection. to banish energy, or to bring it to you, depending on how it's drawn," wrote a Wiccan visitor. Compare with the next link.|
|PENTAGRAM (FIVE-POINTED STAR pointing down): Used in occult rituals to direct forces or energies. Often represents satanism, the horned god or various expressions of contemporary occultism, especially when a goat-head is superimposed on the inverted pentagram within a "sacred" circle. See Heartagram, Baphomet and Pentagrams and Pentacles|
|PHILOSOPHERS STONE: The symbol for the Alchemist quest for transformation and spiritual illumination, it was also the British title of the first Harry Potter book (the U.S. publisher changed it to Sorcerer's Stone). The double-headed eagle in the center is a Masonic seal. See also the Phoenix.|
|PHOENIX: A universal symbol of the sun, mystical rebirth, resurrection and immortality, this legendary red "fire bird" was believed to die in its self-made flames periodically (each hundred years, according to some sources) then rise again out of its own ashes. Linked to the worship of the fiery sun and sun gods such as Mexico's Quetzalcoatl, it was named "a god of Phoenecia" by the Phoenician. To alchemists, it symbolized the the destruction and creation of new forms of matter along the way to the ultimate transformation: physical (turn lead into gold) and spiritual (immortality - an occult alternative to the Christian salvation). The philosopher's stone was considered the key to this transformation.|
||SCARAB: Symbol of the rising sun, the Egyptian sun god Chepri (or Khepera), and protection from evil. To ancient Egyptians, the dung beetle rolled its dung balls like Chepri rolled the sun across the sky. The "sacred" symbol adorned popular seals, amulets and magic charms (worn as protection against evil spirits or to overcome barreness) first in Egypt, then in Phoenicia, Greece and other Mediterranean lands. Medieval alchemists used its pattern in their magical diagrams.|
SERPENT OR SNAKE: Most earth-centered or pagan cultures worshipped the serpent. It represents rebirth (because of its molting), protection against evil, either male of female sexuality, rain and fertility, a mediator between the physical and spiritual world.... It also represents female energy or lifeforce in goddess worship, sometimes linked to the eastern Kundalini force or a supposed "goddess within." The list of meanings is endless, but in the Bible it usually represents sin, temptation, destruction, and Satan. (See dragon) The circular image of the serpent biting its tail links the mythical significance of the serpent to that of the sacred circle. See UROBORUS and spiral.
|SIKH symbol called the KHANDRA: In the middle is a single double-edged sword pointing to a single God. (The truth about this God is revealed through Ten Gurus.) The circle -- the Chakra -- refers to the unity of this God and people. Two single-edged swords frame the Chakra. They represent spiritual and temporal powers.|
|SPIDER: Linked to treachery and death in many cultures, it was seen as a "trickster" in ancient Africa, a "spinner of fate" in ancient goddess cultures and -- in ancient Greek myths -- the goddess Arachne turned into a spider by her jealous rival Athena. "Christian" cultures have linked it both to an evil force that sucked blood from its victims and to "good luck" because of the cross on the back of some species. The Chinese have welcomed the spider descending on its thread as a bringer of joys from heaven.|
|SOCIALIST SOLIDARITY: The revolutionary clenched fist within a black domain represents the International Socialist Organization (ISO). The second fist, usually black, could be a collective call to fight for socialism or communism in any group, state or nation.|
|SPHINX: Ancient Egyptian and Babylonian guardian of sacred places --an idol with human head and a lion's body. The Greek sphinx would devour travelers who failed to answer her riddle. According to A New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry (by Arthur Waite, xii) the masonic sphinx "is the guardian of the Mysteries and is the Mysteries summarized in a symbol. Their secret is the answer to her question. The initiate must know it or lose the life of the Mysteries. If he can and does answer, the Sphinx dies for him, because in his respect the Mysteries have given up their meaning." (An occult, counterfeit view of redemption) See www.srmason-sj.org/web/temple.htm|
Linked to the circle.
Ancient symbol of the goddess, the womb, fertility, feminine serpent force,
continual change, and the evolution of the universe. (Illustrated at this
A common shape in nature (snail, shells, fingerprint...)
Double SPIRAL: Linked to earth-centered or mystical faith in a blend of evolution and devolution -- decay/renewal, life/death/rebirth, spiritual/physical -- the back and forth flow of earthly and cosmic changes. With its focus on the unity of opposites, it resembles the Yin Yang.
|SQUARE: In contrast to the circle which often symbolizes the sacred and spiritual (including the "sacred" earth), the square represents the physical world. Like the quartered circle, it points pagans to the four compass directions: north, east, south and west. While the circle and spiral symbolize female sexuality in many earth-centered cultures, the square represents male qualities.|
|SUN FACE: The pictured image is part of an 18th century Masonic ritual painting, but it illustrates a symbol that has been central to most major spiritual systems of history. Since the sun god usually reigned over a pantheon of lesser gods. his symbol played a vital part in pagan worship (and in the rituals of occult secret societies) around the world. In Inca myths, the sun was worshipped as the divine ancestor of the nation. For links to more information, see Sun face in our Q&A section.|
SUN & MOON JOINED AS ONE: A universal pagan expression of the merging of opposites. Like the Yin Yang, the marriage of the male sun and the female moon represents unity in diversity, compromise instead of conflict, and conformity to a new consciousness where all is one. (See The Marriage of the Sun and Moon)
|SUN and SUN SIGN: The sun was worshipped as a personified, life-giving deity in Babylonian, Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and other major civilizations of history. Today's more common symbol is the familiar face in the center of the sun's rays. This is explained in Teletubbies. (See sun symbol below the picture of the Eye of Horus) A dot or point in the center of a circle symbolizes the blending of male and female forces. (See air, which also represents spirit, among the symbols for Elements) Hindus call the midpoint in a circle the bindu - the spark of (masculine) life within the cosmic womb.|
|SUN SIGN 2 : Found in Turkey and believed to represent the sun and the four directions. (See Swastika 1 and 2). Compare the curving lines with the primary lines of Swastika 3, the iron cross. Notice also that without the horizontal line, the symbol resembles the outline of the Yin-Yang.|
|SUN WHEEL or RING CROSS : A universal symbol found on ancient slabs in Nordic countries, in pre-Columbian America and in Mediterranean countries. "Today, it is used as a log by some new fascist organizations," according to the Dictionary of Symbols.  Like the swastika and other sun symbols, it represents power and supremacy. See also Circle (Quartered) It serves as a logo for the Swedish national socialist party, Nordiska Rikspartiets (scroll to drawing of the sun wheel on a banner), and for the French Jeune Nation.|
SWASTIKA 1: Ancient occult symbol found in Egypt, China, India... (The lower picture shows part of a Hindu temple) Chinese versions include a right-handed (yang) and a left-handed (yin) version -- opposites that "harmonize." It has represented the sun, the four directions, movement and change (the four appendages) and union of opposites (lines crossing). As a pre-Hitler elitist symbol, it was found in the Skull & Bones vault at Yale.
Revived by Hitler, it represents racism and the "white supremacy" of neo-nazis. It's often placed within a circle. There is also a swastika on the gravestone of John Ruskin (mentor of Cecil Rhodes, who formed the secret Society of the Elect "to take the government of the whole world" - Ruskin's words). In Time and Tide (1867), Ruskin wrote that "...the Government must have an authority over the people of which we now do not so much as dream." Ruskin has been reported to be involved in the Illuminati.
|SWASTIKA 2 (Crux Dissimulata): An ancient swastika which symbolized the four winds or directions and their corresponding spirits. It was also a "fire and sun symbol occurring initially in Asia and later among the Germanic tribes," according to The Herder Symbol Dictionary. "The cross inscribed in a circle mediates between the square and the circle," emphasizing the "joining of heaven and earth.... and "the perfected human being."|
|SWASTIKA 3: A contemporary variation of the many swastikas with labyrinth patterns. Like the two swastikas above, its arms point counterclockwise indicating a mystical, lunar and female orientation. Compare its two intersecting lines with Sun Sign 2, its curved arms (following the shape of the circle) with Swastika 2, and its dark areas with the Iron Cross.|
|The TAO: An ancient Chinese symbol used originally to represent a widespread belief in unity, polarity, holism, and magic. See the Yin-Yang and read a longer definition in the Abolition of Man by C.S. Lewis, who suggested the Tao as an ethical system for our times.|
THEOSOPHY: A simplified version of the symbol behind the occult beliefs of UN leader Robert Muller (his World Core Curriculum became a worldwide pattern for global education) and education leader Shirley McCune [See Star Wars Joins United Religions at the Presidio and The International Agenda] Notice the ankh in the center. The more elaborate version inserts a variety of other symbols such as the OM, pentagram, cross, etc. (Because of its dark occult meaning and similarity to some of the complex magical signs used in alchemy and masonic rituals, we prefer not to post it.)
|TOAD: Linked to witchcraft and other occult practices.|
|TONGUE (protruding): Linked to flame, fire, fertility, sexual power and spiritual power. In nations around the world, images of deities or masks with protruding tongues have indicated active and occupying spiritual forces -- often a union of masculine and feminine spirits. Such images were vital to pagan rituals invoking [demonic] spirits. The sexual/spiritual forces represented by gargoyles with protruding tongues which adorned Gothic cathedrals were believed to protect the buildings from other spiritual powers.|
|TOTEM: Carved, painted representation of power animals or animal-human ancestors. To American Indians in the Northwest, who believe that all of nature has spiritual life, the animals in their totems poles represent the spiritual powers of animal protectors or ancestors.|
The WORLD TREE.
This image is the top of a spoon I found in a collection my parents brought
from Norway in the fifties.
the five-pointed crown and the Rolex label is the bare rooted tree, which
is common to myths in many parts of the world. Its branches supposedly reach
up to mythical heavens and its roots encircle the earth. It symbolizes humanity
reaching for the heights of occult spiritual experience. In ancient pagan
Scandinavia it was called Yggdrasil, a "Cosmic Tree." Its also linked to
the worship of Canaanite, Greek, Roman, Celtic and other mythological deities
through the ages.
The bowl of the spoon shows a Lion pierced with a sword or arrow through the heart. The image includes a shield, cross, battle ax and a flower between the lion's front paws. (More will be posted on this later)
(Seen in the center of an
Associated with the number three. Pointing
upwards, it symbolizes fire, male power and counterfeit view of God. (See
pyramid) To Christians,
it often represents the Trinity. Pointing down, it symbolizes water, female
sexuality, goddess religions and homosexuality. See chart of symbols in
What Teletubbies Teach Toddlers.
See large picture of Kabbalistic triangles used in ritual magic.
|TRIDENT: Called "the devil's pitchfork," it has symbolized major gods in various pagan cultures. In India, it is linked to the Hindu "trident-bearer" Shiva, spouse of the skull-bearing goddess Kali. More recently, this three-sponged spear has been used by Hindu militants in India to intimidate Christians. See article: "India Local Government OK's 'Anti-Christian' Weapons Distribution"|
|TRINITY [Our Triune God]: An early Christian symbol for the Trinity. It is related to the symbol of the fish (vesica piscis) used by the early -- and often persecuted Christians -- to identify themselves as belonging to Jesus Christ. Apparently, the word "fish" in Greek is a combination of the first letters of His name: Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior. Like many Christian symbols, the same shape has also been used by various pagan religions throughout history. See the next symbol:|
|TRIQUETRA: The triquetra -- with or without the circle -- has been found on runestones in Scandinavia, in ancient goddess-oriented pagan groups, in Celtic manuscripts, and on early Germanic coins. It is associated with numerous mythical gods and goddesses and has been used as a protective charm by Wiccans. Sometimes the symbol is reversed -- pointing down rather than up. The three points may also be round rather than pointed.|
|UNICORN: To many New Agers, it means power, purification, healing, wisdom, self-knowledge, renewal and eternal life. Origin: In the 4th century BC, Greek historian Ctesias told about a wild animal with healing powers and a spiral horn on its forehead. Medieval myths suggested it could only be caught with help from a virgin who would befriend it.|
|UROBORUS: The circular serpent (yes, the circle represents a serpent with head in upper left corner) seen here) biting its own tail represents eternity and the cycles or "circle of life." Medieval alchemists linked it to the cyclical processes in nature. The uroborus pictured here (encircling the UN symbol for humanity seen inside a triangle) was the official symbol on for the 1996 United Nations Conference on Human Settlements pictured on all its literature. See (Habitat II). See other versions of the Uroborus at serpent.|
WHEEL: A universal symbol of or cosmic unity, astrology, "the circle of life," evolution, etc. The pagan sacred circle plus any number of radiating spokes or petals form the wheel - a Wheel of Life to Buddhists, a Medicine Wheel to Native Americans, a Mandala to Hindus. It symbolizes unity, movement, the sun, the zodiac, reincarnation, and earth's cycles of renewal. Pagans use it in astrology, magic and many kinds of rituals. (See Medicine Wheel and Quartered Circle)
This SUN WHEEL became a magical amulet to the Celtic Gauls or Gaels in Europe. Later, "Christians adopted the form, changing it slightly, so that it became a Christ monogram drawn within a circle." [celticrevival.com]
|(Tibetan Prayer) WHEELS: "devices for spreading spiritual blessings and well being. Rolls of thin paper, imprinted with many, many copies of the mantra (prayer) Om Mani Padme Hum... are wound around an axle in a protective container, and spun around and around. Tibetan Buddhists believe that saying this mantra, out loud or silently to oneself, invokes the powerful benevolent attention and blessings of Chenrezig, the embodiment of compassion." (From The Prayer Wheel)|
|WHEEL OF DHARMA: Buddhist wheel of life and reincarnation. Sometimes it is shown with a small yin yang symbol in the center.|
WISHBONE: Civilizations dating back to the 4th Century (Etruscans, Romans... Britain, America) have held turkey or chicken wishbone contest. Pulling the dry turkey or chicken bone until it snapped ("lucky break"), they believing the winner's wish or dream would come true. In today's increasingly superstitious culture, many believe that this symbol will "catch" their dreams, bring good luck, and make their wishes come true. As in contemporary witchcraft or magic, the object becomes a channel of "good" energy. Astrology and horoscopes link it to Saggitarius. It might also be confused with the Lambda (looks like a lower case, upside-down "y"), the Greek letter adopted by the International Gay Rights Congress in 1974 as the global symbol of homosexual "pride".
HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO,
a UN agency):
This symbol points back to the days
of Moses, when a dead serpent was displayed on a stake during the Israelites
40-year journey through the wilderness. Instead of trusting God, the people
complained, so "the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people...and many...died."
When they confessed their sin, God told Moses to "make a fiery serpent,
and set it on a pole." Those who then looked at the bronze serpent on the
stake with confidence in God's promise, were healed
This became an illustration of the crucifixion through which Jesus bore
the judgment we deserve for our sins.
(See John 3:14)
About 700 BC, faithful king Hezekiah 'broke in pieces the bronze serpent
that Moses had made, since the people worshiped it as an idol and "burned
incense to it." (2 King 18:1-5)
WORLD TRIAD: Originally an oriental symbol, it was "adopted by western Gnostics as an emblem of cosmic creativity, the threefold nature of reality or fate, and the eternally spiraling cycles of time... In Japan it was maga-tama or mitsu tomoe, the world soul.... In Bhutan and Tibet, it is still known as the Cosmic Mandala, a sign of the Trimurti."5 Like the yin yang (below), it also represents eternity. This is also the symbol for U.S. Department of Transportation. Another Gnostic symbol is the uroborus.
A Chinese Tao picture of universal harmony
and the unity between complimentary opposites: light/dark, male/female,
etc. Yin is the dark, passive, negative female principle. Yang is the light,
active, positive principle. Since the holistic balance between Yin and Yang
is dynamic and constantly changing, it illustrates the
consensus process, the vision
of global unity, and the blending of opposing energies at the heart of
Since it represent monism (all is one) and pantheism (all is God), it opposes Christianity, which shows us that there is only one God (monotheism), and only in Christ can we be one. See The Tao
|ASTROLOGICAL CHART: used by medieval alchemists in divination. Notice the symbol of the intellect and of the planet (and Roman god) Mercury inside the center triangle. This triangle is surrounded by a hexagram and two smaller triangles positioned as male and female energy - and seven more concentric circles. Compound symbols within magical codes and names inside multiple circles have been used by occultists and sorcerers in many parts of the world. It is still used in African witchcraft.|
|All-seeing EYE in the PYRAMID: The official symbol for DARPA Total Information Awareness, a surveillance and information system established by they U.S. government. [See programs] Notice how the masonic all-seeing eye of the new world order covers the planet with its enlightening rays. [Sometime in December 2002, this symbol was removed from the TIA website. Perhaps too many people complained. See Federal database spy site fading away]|
|Masonic COMPASS (also Mormon), Skull, Circle (Uroborus?), Pen & Scroll(?). Worn as a patch on a gray sweater by Mormon reporter Glenn Beck on his April 1, 2011 show on Fox. Perhaps it was an April Fool's joke. See this video or (alternative video).|
|The GREAT SEAL of the United States of America: The design for this national emblem was completed in 1782. Some consider its occult and masonic images an American mission statement. The inscribed motto, E Pluribus Unum means "Out of many, one." The words Novus Ordo Seclorum mean "a new order of the ages," according to this website: www.greatseal.com. The two sides show the symbol of the eagle (first a phoenix) and the eye in the pyramid. See All-Seeing Eye & Eye of Horus & Great Seal. But the more correct meaning would be NEW WORLD ORDER [novous = new, ordo = order, seclorum = secular or world] See also www.greatseal.com & A More Perfect Union|
The GREAT SEAL (back side) of the United States of America: "An unfinished pyramid appears on the reverse of the seal, inscribed on its base with the date 1776 in Roman numerals. Where the top of the pyramid should be, the so-called eye of Providence watches over it. Two mottos appear: Annuit Cœptis signifies that somebody (presumably Providence) has "nodded at (our) beginnings". Novus Ordo Seclorum, a quotation from Virgil, refers to a "new order of the ages", i.e. a paradigm shift." See www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Great-Seal-of-the-United-States
The SEAL of the SENATE "...includes a scroll inscribed with E Pluribus Unum floating across a shield with thirteen stars on top and thirteen vertical stripes on the bottom. Olive and oak branches symbolizing peace and strength grace the sides of the shield, and a red liberty cap and crossed fasces represent freedom and authority. Blue beams of light emanate from the shield." www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Seal-of-the-United-States-Senate
FASCES: "...a bundle of wooden rods tied together as a cylinder around an axe. ... The fasces lictoriae ("bundles of the lictors") (in Italian, fascio littorio) symbolised power and authority (imperium) in ancient Rome." www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Fasces
You can see the original UR symbol here:
|UNITED RELIGIONS: Fourteen religious symbols form a circle around planet Earth. But you can no longer read about each religious symbol by clicking on them. Apparently, not all the religions represented in that ring are currently supporting UR's plan for global unity. Those that are working with UR include Bah'i, Buddhism, "First Peoples" (Native Americans), Islam, Jewish Unitarian Universalists, and "Rational Faith" - which rejects Biblical faith. See Star Wars Joins United Religions at the Presidio|
Warning Concerning SymbolsIn the world of the occult, many symbols are imbued with power by the magician working in conjunction with the demonic spirit world. The Wiccan leader Starhawk, founder of the Covenant of the Goddess, knows that well. "To cast a spell is to project energy through a symbol," she wrote in The Spiral Dance, her popular manual for witchcraft.
Since the occult use of symbols have spread like epidemic across the Western world, we want to exercise caution. Therefore, when we began to add pictures to the original list of symbols, we decided to leave out certain images – particularly satanic symbols that obviously represent evil. Though many were already familiar to children in public schools, we didn’t want to risk implanting those images on a child’s mind. (We will explain why in another note.) We also left out the theosophical symbol, some of the more complex masonic symbols, and other symbols typically used for magic and alchemy. To explain, let me share an important lesson I learned about five years ago.
I was speaking at a Bay Area Sunday School Convention (BASS) in California on the topic, "The Unholy Power of Charms and Symbols." Parents and teachers were still crowding into the small auditorium, when I began showing transparencies of simple symbols such as the yin-yang, the peace symbol, and the ankh. We discussed why these symbols were important to people long ago – and why their popularity has skyrocketed today.
Then we looked at more universal symbols such as the pentagram, the lightening bolt, the sun, and the circle -- including the Wiccan quartered circle, the Native American medicine wheel, and the Buddhist wheel of life. "Why are they considered universal?" I asked. "What mythical themes do they echo from around the world? Why are they so important to multicultural education?" (We will post a chapter from A Twist of Faith which answers these questions.)
Finally, we looked at compound symbols. (You can see an example at the end of the current list of symbols.) The day before the conference, I had been searching for a particular combination of symbols found in a Theosophical emblem. By the time I did find it, it was too late to put it on a transparency. Then I had made a foolish decision: I prepared to draw the occult image onto the transparency in front of the class.
Putting the clear transparency on the projector, I drew a large circle, then added two overlapping triangles (one pointing up, one pointing down), forming a hexagram. I began to fill in various single symbols: the pentagram, swastika…. Suddenly, something dark and heavy hit me in the chest. For a moment I lost both my balance and my breath, then, in a flash, I knew what was happening. I had unwittingly performed an occult ritual common to Buddhist and Native Americans traditions as well as to medieval alchemy. By the very act of drawing the symbols, I had invoked a spiritual entity.
Still in front of the crowd and the microphone, I cried out, " "Forgive me, Lord! Cover me with your blood. In the name of Jesus Christ, I declare Your victory over the evil one. In You, we are 'more than conquerors!' Thank you, Jesus, my Lord and my King!"
I apologized to the audience, asking their forgiveness for imposing on them a ritual that brought forth this evil. Then we all thanked God for His lesson and protection.
As fast as the demonic entity came, it was gone. Among the people gathered around me afterwards was a woman who said, "I think I know what happened to you. While you were drawing that symbol, the man sitting next to me was moving his hands in strange ways and murmuring something as if he was casting a spell. He may have come to bring occult interference."
It didn’t surprise me. I have often encountered challenges when I address these topics in public places. But God has always used it for good, giving me answers on the spot as well as ongoing opportunities to share with them God’s truth and wisdom.
Only God knows exactly what happened. But His Word is full of warnings concerning any participation in the works of darkness. If I opened the door to evil interference through my foolish demonstration, a servant of Satan could surely work with the evil one to enhance his work. God, who promises never to give Satan more reigns than His love allows, will still allow the painful consequences needed for our training in obedience.
Though we fellowship at a small, non-charismatic, non-denominational Bible church, God has often put me in places where I have had to help those who were trapped in occult bondage. Through these lessons, I have learned to look with sober caution at the power of evil. Yet, all the more, I praise my Lord for His continual protection and faithfulness
As our nation slides back toward paganism, God’s people need to understand the increasing influence, trickery, and cruelty of the evil one – while always thanking and following our God, whose power is far greater. Therefore, I plead with all of you to exercise great caution when confronted with any sign of Satan’s work. Please read the section on God's armor, and remember that we leave the "breastplate of righteousness" behind when we go where He tells us not to go. For the armor that covers us is the very life of Jesus, our Lord. Walking with Him in His ways, we are always safe.
You may want to read Popular Occultism and study the following Scriptures:
1 Corinthians 10:18-22; 2 Corinthians 6:14; Deuteronomy 4:15-24; Deuteronomy 32:16-19; 2 Thessalonians 2:7-12
1. Miranda Bruce-Mitford, The Illustrated Book of Signs and Symbols (London: Dorling Kindersley, 1996); page 58.
2. Ibid., page 58.
3. Carl G. Liungman, Dictionary of Symbols (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1991), page 282.
4. The Herder Symbol Dictionary (Wilmette IL: Chiron Publications, 1978), page 51. The quote that follows is a general comment about crosses within a circle and does not refer specifically to this stylized swastika.
5. Barbara Walker, The Woman's Dictionary of Symbols and Sacred Objects (San Francisco: Harper, 1988), page 45.
6. James Graham-Campell, The Viking World (UK: Frances Lincoln Publishers, 1980), page 160.
7. Carl G. Liungman, Dictionary of Symbols (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1991), page 253.
8. Familie Boka, Vol. VII, [Norwegian Encyclopedia] (Oslo: Aschehoug & Co., 1952), page 347.
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