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Abraham didn't exist? Moses a myth?

Archeological and historical evidence of Biblical accuracy

By Andy and Berit Kjos

"...always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you..." 1 Peter 3:15 

Dr. N. Glueck

Emphasis added below

"There can be no doubt that archaeology has confirmed the substantial historicity of Old Testament tradition."[1] William F. Albright (1891–1971), one of the world's most respected archaeologists.

"It may be stated categorically that no archaeological discovery has ever controverted a biblical reference." [2] Nelson Glueck, Jewish archaeologist honored even by liberal Time Magazine. (See picture above)


"The Bible's Buried Secrets," a new PBS documentary to be aired November 18, seems designed to undermine the Bible. Not only does it demote Abraham and his descendants to the realm of mythology, it also dismisses the Exodus and denies any written Old Testament record prior to the sixth century B.C.[3]  

But we shouldn't be surprised at this unscientific assault on the Bible. As Professor William F. Albright, archeologist and head of Palestine's American School of Oriental Research, observed,

"The excessive skepticism shown toward the Bible by important historical schools... has been progressively discredited. Discovery after discovery has established the accuracy of innumerable details, and has brought increased recognition to the value of the Bible as a source of history."[4]

Archeological evidence that confirms the Bible

1. Written records from over 4,000 years ago.  Dr. Paolo Matthiae, Director of the Italian Archeological Mission in Syria, "hit an archeological jackpot" in 1975.  He discovered "the greatest third-millennium [B.C.] archive ever unearthed." It included "more than 15,000 cuneiform tablets and fragments" and unveiled a Semitic empire that dominated the Middle East more than four thousand years ago. Its hub was Ebla, where educated scribes filled ancient libraries with written records of history, people, places and commerce.[5]

"These early tablets display an ease of expression, an elegance that indicates complete mastery of the cuneiform system by the scribes," said Dr. Giovanni Pettinato, former epigraphist of the Italian Mission, who worked closely with Dr. Matthiae. "One can only conclude that writing had been in use at Ebla for a long time before 2500 B.C."

The Ebla tablets verified the worship of pagan gods such as Baal, Dagan and Asherah "known previously only from the Bible."[5] They mention the name "Abraham" and "Ur of Chaldees" (the Biblical Abraham's birthplace) as well as other familiar cities and places:

"The names of cities thought to have been founded much later, such as Beirut and Byblos, leap from the tablets. Damascus and Gaza are mentioned, as well as two of the Biblical cities of the plain, Sodom and Gomorrah. ... Most intriguing of all are the personal names found on the Ebla tablets. They include Ab-ra-mu (Abraham), E-sa-um (Esau)...."[5]

Destroyed and rebuilt several times, Ebla began its final decline around 1800 B.C. Since new generations settled on top of the old ruins, it left behind a many-layered "TEL" (Looks like a flat-topped hill. Capitalized for emphasis) which archeologists will continue to explore for years to come.

Centuries later, Moses was trained "in all the wisdom of the Egyptians" (Acts 7:22). Raised at Pharaoh's court, he would have learned to write on fragile papyrus as well as clay tablets. The 1988 discovery of the TEL el Amarna letters shows us that written messages were an important part of Moses' culture:

"...there were about 400 cuneiform tablets discovered at this site which were part of the royal archives of Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) who reigned about 1400 BC. Among them were letters written in Babylonian cuneiform script to these Pharaohs of Egypt by various kings dwelling in the land of Canaan and Syria... written during the time of Moses [and Joshua]. They provide the first evidence of the Hebrew tribes entering into the land of Canaan in ancient times."[6]

That last sentence points to the completion of the Biblical Exodus -- the Israelite journey, led by Moses, out of bondage in Egypt toward the land God had promised them. Perhaps the "scholars" behind the PBS "documentary" simply chose to ignore the evidence. After all, politically correct deceptions are far more acceptable than facts to a world that no longer tolerates Truth. But that's all the more reason to be ready with answers to those who question our faith. The following archeological finds should help prepare us for the challenges ahead. 

2. The Hittite Empire: The Hittites are mentioned dozens of times in the Old Testament. Yet, a century ago,

"critics of Biblical historicity argued that the Bible's descriptions of the Hittite Empire were later insertions, since they were certain the Hittite Empire didn't exist.... But in 1906 archaeologists unearthed the Hittite capital and in the years following excavated what is now known to have been a massive and very prominent Hittite civilization."[7]

3. The royal line of King David:  Archeologists have found "the first known reference outside the Bible to the House of David, a ruling dynasty presumably founded by King David in the 10th century B.C." The stone fragment with these revealing inscriptions was found in the ruins of TEL Dan (in northern Israel). One "initial interpretation" is that a victorious king (probably Baasha) was documenting his battle against the king of the "House of David," probably Asa. According to the New York Times, this discovery "is strong independent evidence for the existence and influence of the House of David."[8]  

4. Cursive writing "an international means of communication":  By the 10th century B.C. writing -- including Aramaic -- had become increasingly common. In spite of social divisions, many were learning to write:

"Though the clerk, the cultured person and the craftsman all used basically the same cursive script, there were decided stylistic differences. These may be classified as sub-styles of cursive and can be termed: (a) extreme cursive—that of the cultured person; (b) formal cursive—that of the professional scribe; and (c) vulgar cursive—that of persons of limited schooling....

"During the ninth and the first half of the eighth centuries, there is no evident distinction between Phoenician and Aramaic script; apparently, the Phoenician-Aramaic lapidary script was used for writing in ink as well.... The beginnings of Aramaic cursive and its rapid development are undoubtedly connected with the rise of the Aramaic language and script as an international means of communication."[9]

5. King Sargon: The prophet Isaiah tells us that "Sargon, the king of Assyria, sent" his commander to fight "against Ashdod," a coastal city in ancient Israel. (Isaiah 20:1). Though Sargon is no household name, this verse fueled a controversy back in the early days of archeology. Some researchers had uncovered a stone obelisk with an engraved list of Assyrian kings. But it didn't include Sargon! So the University of Chicago announced that they saw a "glaring contradiction in the Bible." They were wrong! When Sargon's royal palace was excavated, researchers found his name engraved on numerous bricks in the palace walls -- along with boastful references to his conquest of Ashdod.[10]

6. The Philistine city, Ekron (now called TEL Miqne):  This confirmation of Biblical accuracy was published by the Archaeological Institute of America:

"An inscription carved into a limestone slab found at TEL Miqne, 23 miles southwest of Jerusalem, confirms the identification of the site as Ekron, one of the five Philistine capital cities mentioned in the Bible. The inscription is unique because it contains the name of a biblical city and five of its rulers, two of whom are mentioned as kings in texts other than the Bible.... It also strengthens the identification of Ekron with a... city-state recorded in Assyrian texts of the seventh century B.C....

"In 712 B.C. this city was conquered by the Assyrian king Sargon II. For a short time, beginning in 705 B.C., it came under the control of Hezekiah, king of Judah.... In 603 B.C. the city was sacked by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar."[11] 

When faced with the overwhelming Assyrian forces, Hezekiah prayed to God for His sovereign intervention. Before the great victory, he encouraged the people:

"Be strong and courageous; do not be afraid nor dismayed before the king of Assyria, nor before all the multitude that is with him; for there are more with us than with him. With him is an arm of flesh; but with us is the Lord our God, to help us and to fight our battles.' And the people were strengthened by the words of Hezekiah king of Judah.”  2 Chronicles 32:7-8

7. The Pool of Bethesda: "...liberal scholars, intent on maintaining their criticism of the Bible, claimed that the Gospel of John could not have been written" by the actual disciple. They argued that verses such as John 6:1 had to be wrong, since it refers to "five porches" at the Jerusalem's pool of Bethesda. But more recent excavations verified John's account:

"...approximately eight years ago archaeologists discovered underneath what they had previously thought was the earliest level at the site of Bethesda an older mikveh (pool) which had a fifth portico transecting it! One would hope that at some point the critics would concede the historical reliability of the biblical narrative."[7]

That's unlikely! Millar Burrows, the renowned Professor of Archaeology at Yale University, explained why:

"The excessive skepticism of many liberal theologians stems not from a careful evaluation of the available data, but from an enormous predisposition against the supernatural."[7]

The accuracy of the Biblical record has been proven again and again. As Dr. Joseph Free wrote, "Archaeology has confirmed countless passages which had been rejected by critics as unhistorical or contrary to known facts."12]

Scientific evidence that supports the Bible

1. Ocean currents (these rivers in the seas -- such as the Gulf Stream that flows across the Atlantic Ocean, bringing the Gulf of Mexico's warm waters to the coast of Norway -- are driven by earth's rotation, gravitation, winds, temperature, saltiness, density variations, etc. See video)

 

These mighty currents were first discovered by Matthew Maury, a naval officer who was confident that the Bible didn't lie. Disabled by an accident in 1839, Maury left active sea duty and became the superintendent of the US Naval Observatory. As head of the US Depot of Charts and Instruments, he could finally seek answers to a persistent question on his mind: What were "the paths of the seas" mentioned in Psalm 8:8? After studying old ships’ logs,

"he compiled charts of ocean-wind and sea currents. To study the speed and direction of the ocean currents Maury set adrift weighted bottles known as ‘drift bottles’. These floated slightly below the surface of the water, and thus were not affected by wind.... From the location and date on which the bottles were found, Maury was able to develop his charts of the ocean currents — the ‘paths’ of the seas — which greatly aided the science of marine navigation....

"He was elected to the Hall of Fame for Great Americans. A monument erected in his honour... reads: ‘Matthew Fontaine Maury, Pathfinder of the Seas, the genius who first snatched from the oceans and atmosphere the secret of their laws.'"[13]  

 

2. The hydrological cycle:  Thousands of years before scientists understood or acknowledged this cycle, it was documented in the Bible. The verses below describe the repeated cycle of precipitation, the flow of water into oceans, its evaporation, and its condensation, which is transported inland in clouds, and driven by currents of winds -- including the now familiar "jet stream," which was unheard of in former times.

"God... draws up drops of water, which distill as rain from the mist, which the clouds drop down and pour abundantly on man. Indeed, can anyone understand the spreading of clouds, the thunder from His canopy?" Job 36:26-29

 

"The wind goes toward the south, and turns around to the north;
The wind whirls about continually, and comes again on its circuit.
All the rivers run into the sea, yet the sea is not full;
To the place from which the rivers come, there they return again." Ecclesiastes 1:6-7

Historical evidence for Biblical accuracy

Ponder these amazing links between the Biblical account and historical discoveries:

1. Ancient Israel: Before God led His people into their promised land, He warned them through Moses not to follow the corrupt ways of neighboring nations. This brief summary of one such warning could be a wake-up call to Americans as well:

"...when you have eaten and are full, and have built beautiful houses and dwell in them... your heart is lifted up and you forget the Lord your God. ... [Y]ou say in your heart, ‘My power and the might of my hand have gained me this wealth.’ ... [I]f you by any means forget the Lord your God, and follow other gods... you shall surely perish. As the nations which the Lord destroys before you, so you shall perish, because you would not be obedient to the voice of the Lord your God." (Deuteronomy 8:10-20)

Since they didn't listen, they were eventually destroyed -- as the prophets had warned. Most of the people were exiled to Babylon, where many repented, revived the old Scriptures, and were taught God's laws through the teachings of exiled leaders such as Ezekiel.

But others blended their understanding of God with Babylonian myths and conceived a new form of occultism: the Kabbalah. Its history and influence can be traced through mystical branches of rabbinical teachings, secret societies, medieval alchemy, and occult orders such as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Most of its branches proclaim an impersonal "God" or "force" -- an enticing counterfeit of the Biblical God.

2. The rise and fall of empires:  When Nebuchadnezzar conquered Israel, he brought Daniel to his court. There the faithful prophet interpreted the king's strange dreams and won his respect. One dream in particular was obviously fulfilled:

"...it happened, when I, Daniel, had seen the vision and was seeking the meaning, that suddenly there stood before me one having the appearance of a man.... And he said, '...The ram which you saw, having the two horns—they are the kings of Media and Persia. And the male goat is the kingdom of Greece. The large horn that is between its eyes is the first king. As for the broken horn and the four that stood up in its place, four kingdoms shall arise out of that nation, but not with its power...." (Daniel 8:15-22).   

Decades later, Media and Persia conquered and ruled the vast Babylonian empire. They were replaced when the Greek armies of Alexander the Great swept through the Middle East. When Alexander died, his empire was divided among four generals, and its glory soon faded.[14]  

3. Dumping Tyre into the sea:  The prophet Ezekiel foretold the unique destruction of Tyre -- a coastal center of Mediterranean commerce -- centuries before it was fulfilled:

"...because Tyre has said against Jerusalem, ‘Aha! She is broken who was the gateway of the peoples; now she is turned over to me.... Therefore thus says the Lord God: ‘Behold, I am against you, O Tyre, and will cause many nations to come up against you.... And they shall destroy the walls of Tyre and break down her towers; I will also scrape her dust from her, and make her like the top of a rock. It shall be a place for spreading nets in the midst of the sea.... I will make you a desolate city, like cities that are not inhabited, when I bring the deep upon you, and great waters cover you..." (Ezekiel 26:2-5,19-20)

A city covered by the sea? Impossible!

Not according to history and archeology. The first assaults on this rich maritime city came from Nebuchadnezzar's armies. The city was totally destroyed, but most of its residents escaped to a large island near the coast. Five centuries later (in 332 B.C.), Alexander the Great decided to add this well fortified island city to his Greek empire. When it resisted, the Greek army built a 200 feet wide causeway out to the island -- using the sand and stones from the ruins of the original city to build the passage. They "scraped" Tyre's remnants and cast them into "the midst of the sea."[15]

4. Petra:  Years ago, we visited Petra, the "pink city" dramatized in the movie, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. The trip to ancient Edom’s capital began in Amman, Jordan, with a four-hour drive south through the desert. Finally, at the mountainous entrance to Petra, the passage once blocked to Moses and his followers, we walked through a narrow gorge. The vertical rock walls on both sides framed a sliver of the "pink palace,” permitting a teasing glimpse of the rose-colored columns and sculptured ornaments of a palatial wall.

But when we reached the once-flourishing city, the stark sunlight exposed the faded facades of a lifeless ghost town. Behind the broken ruins of a lost civilization were empty caves - the stripped tombs of a people who long ago rejected God. The path led no further. The well-traveled old roads were gone -- just as the Bible prophesied:

"... it shall lie waste; No one shall pass through it.... thorns shall come up in its palaces, nettles and brambles in its fortresses.... The wild beasts of the desert shall also meet with the jackals... There the arrow snake shall make her nest..." (Isaiah 34:9-15)

Edom literally dried, wilted, and died. Its streams and vineyards turned to dust -- but not because of chlorofluorocarbons!  God did it, because the smug Edomites rejected His ways. But --

"This is what the Sovereign LORD says about Edom... 'The pride of your heart has deceived you, you who live in the clefts of the rocks and make your home on the heights, you who say to yourself, 'Who can bring me down to the ground?' Though you ... make your nest among the stars, from there I will bring you down'” (Obadiah 1, 34)

Unlike the myths and legends of other spiritual traditions, the Bible's meticulous recording of historical events matches both secular history and archeological discoveries. Even the Old Testament droughts (that led to famines and wars) match the migrations, climatic changes, tree rings[16] and other discoveries charted by scholars. God's Word is true. We can count on it!

"All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work."  2 Timothy 3:16-17

Old Testament prophesies fulfilled by Jesus

1. He would be born of a virgin: “...the Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a Son...." (Isaiah 7:14)

Fulfilled! "Now in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a city of Galilee named Nazareth, to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph. ... [T]he angel said to her, 'Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bring forth a Son, and shall call His name Jesus... and of His kingdom there will be no end.'
     "Then Mary said to the angel, 'How can this be, since I 'do not know a man?'
     "And the angel answered and said to her, 'The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Highest will overshadow you; therefore, also, that Holy One who is to be born will be called the Son of God." (Luke 1:26-35)

2. He would be born in Bethlehem: "But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though you are little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of you shall come forth to Me the One to be Ruler in Israel, Whose goings forth are from of old, from everlasting.”  (Micah 5:2)

Fulfilled! "Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and lineage of David, to be registered with Mary, his betrothed wife, who was with child.... And she brought forth her firstborn Son..." (Luke 2:4-7)

3. His death would redeem us from sin and judgment: "He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities...  and the Lord has laid on Him the iniquity of us all. He was oppressed and He was afflicted, yet He opened not His mouth...." (Isaiah 53:5-7)

Fulfilled! "For to this you were called, because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that you should follow His steps:
'Who committed no sin... who, when He was reviled, did not revile in return; when He suffered, He did not threaten, but committed Himself to Him who judges righteously; who Himself bore our sins in His own body on the tree..." (1 Peter 2:20-25)

4. He was rejected by those He came to save: He is despised and rejected by men.... and we did not esteem Him." (Isaiah 53:3).

Fulfilled! "That was the true Light which gives light to every man coming into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him. He came to His own, and His own did not receive Him. (John 1:9)

5. Identified with our sins, Jesus was separated from our Holy God: "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?"  (Psalm 22:1).

Fulfilled! "And about the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, 'Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?' that is, 'My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?'" (Matthew 27:46)

6. He would face mockery from ruling authorities: "All those who see Me ridicule Me; they shoot out the lip, they shake the head, saying, 'He trusted in the Lord, let Him rescue Him; let Him deliver Him...”  (Psalm 22:7-8).

Fulfilled! "...the chief priests also, mocking with the scribes and elders, said, 'He saved others; Himself He cannot save. If He is the King of Israel, let Him now come down from the cross, and we will believe Him. He trusted in God; let Him deliver Him....’” (Matthew 27:41-43)

7. Nails would pierce his hands and feet: "They pierced My hands and My feet."  (Psalm 22:16)

Fulfilled!  When the resurrected Jesus appeared to His disciples, he said, "Why are you troubled? And why do doubts arise in your hearts? Behold My hands and My feet.... Handle Me and see, for a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see I have.'" (Luke 24:38-39)

"[Eight days later, Jesus appeared to all the disciples] He said to Thomas, 'Reach your finger here, and look at My hands... Do not be unbelieving, but believing.' And Thomas answered and said to Him, 'My Lord and my God!'
Jesus said to him, 'Thomas, because you have seen Me, you have believed. Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.” (John 20:25, 27-29

8. They "cast lots" for his clothes: "They divide My garments among them, and for My clothing they cast lots." (Psalm 22:18)

Fulfilled! "And when they crucified Him, they divided His garments, casting lots for them to determine what every man should take." Mark

9. God's decree and promise after the fall: (speaking to the serpent) "And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her Seed; He shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heel.”  (Genesis 3:14)

Fulfilled! "And you He made alive, who were dead in trespasses and sins, in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience, among whom also we all once conducted ourselves in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath....
      "But God, who is rich in mercy, because of His great love with which He loved us, even when we were dead in trespasses, made us alive together with Christ.... For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God, not of works, lest anyone should boast... (Ephesians 2:1-9)


Proof of the resurrection

"Very early in the morning, on the first day of the week, they came to the tomb.... And they said among themselves, 'Who will roll away the stone from the door of the tomb for us?' 'But when they looked up, they saw that the stone had been rolled away—for it was very large. And entering the tomb, they saw a young man clothed in a long white robe sitting on the right side; and they were alarmed. But he said to them, 'Do not be alarmed. You seek Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified. He is risen! He is not here." (Mark 16:2-6)

"After that, He appeared in another form to two of them as they walked and went into the country. And they went and told it to the rest, but they did not believe them either. Later He appeared to the eleven...." (Mark 16:12-14)

It's not surprising that many doubt or deny His resurrection. On that glorious event rests the ultimate victory of the gospel! Through the cross, Jesus redeemed us (bore the legal punishment for our sin and freed us from the judgment of the law). Having cleansed us from our sin, He could -- by His resurrection -- raise "us up together" with Himself, so that we could share in His heavenly victory even as we serve Him here on earth." (Ephesians 2:1-10)?

1. The massive stone had been rolled away!  This is no small miracle. Weighing over a ton, it could hardly be moved without a lever. Meanwhile, the tomb was both sealed and guarded by a team of Roman soldiers who would face torture and death if they fell asleep or failed to carry out their mission. These guard would eventually be bribed to spread false explanations. 

"Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the tomb. And behold, there was a great earthquake; for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat on it. His countenance was like lightning, and his clothing as white as snow. And the guards shook for fear of him, and became like dead men." (Matthew 28:1-4)

"...some of the guard came into the city and reported to the chief priests all the things that had happened. When they had assembled with the elders and consulted together, they gave a large sum of money to the soldiers, saying, 'Tell them, ‘His disciples came at night and stole Him away while we slept.’ And if this comes to the governor’s ears, we will appease him and make you secure.' So they took the money and did as they were instructed...." (
Matthew 28:11-15)

2. The tomb was empty -- except for the burial wrappings: If the disciples stole the body, why they bother to uncover it before hiding it. No, the tomb was empty because Jesus had, indeed, risen!

3. More than 500 witnesses could confirm His post-resurrection appearances:  As the apostle Paul wrote:

"For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and that He was buried, and that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and that He appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. After that He appeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time, most of whom remain until now..." (1 Corinthians 15:3-6)

6. The disciples and others who followed Christ would face persecution and death for proclaiming the resurrection: Before the crucifixion, the disciples were too frightened to even defend their Lord. Their fear didn't diminish after the crucifixion. But after the resurrection, everything changed!

His faithful disciples boldly proclaimed the gospel, the resurrection and the victorious name of Jesus in spite of the threats against them. They faced imprisonment, torture, stoning and death. What changed them? Only an absolute certainty that Jesus, their Lord and King had indeed risen! 

"...just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life." (Romans 6:4)


Only One Way

Jesus is the Way - the only way - to life with God today and forever.  Yet, millions of seekers are choosing spiritual paths that lead to bondage, disillusionment and despair. Most seek blindly, for they can neither read nor follow God's signposts.  They don't see the chasm that separates His Way from all other ways; nor will they seek help from the only One who can bridge that gap.

Our sovereign Lord wrote the blueprint for life, salvation and victory! His Word will stand no matter how many people reject it. They make it abundantly clear that there are no alternative pathways -- no other trails up the mountain -- that can bring us near to God and open the Door into His wonderful eternal Kingdom. Only Jesus Christ, our Lord, can show us the Way:

"I am the door. If anyone enters by Me, he will be saved, and will go in and out and find pasture. The thief does not come except to steal, and to kill, and to destroy. I have come that they may have life, and that they may have it more abundantly." (John 10:9-10)

'I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me.'" (John 14:6)

If you are truly part of His family, then you know the peace and hope we have in Christ. And nothing is more reassuring than promises such as this:

 "Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? ... Yet in all these things we are more than conquerors through Him who loved us. For I am persuaded that neither death nor life, nor angels nor principalities nor powers, nor things present nor things to come, nor height nor depth, nor any other created thing, shall be able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord." (Romans 8:31-39)


If you seek to know our God and be part of His family, please see this page: What it means to be a Christian

The following testimonies illustrate how God changes lives and provides all the wisdom and strength we need to joyfully serve Him. We hope they will encourage you: Guilty as Charged | Living in God's forgiveness | My Shepherd

 

Endnotes:

1. William F. Albright, The Archeology and the Religions of Israel, John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1956, p. 176. Cited by Rabbi Glenn Harris, www.gospeloutreach.net/bible.html

2. Nelson Glueck, Rivers in the Desert: History of Negev. Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1969, P. 176. Cited by Rabbi Glenn Harris, www.gospeloutreach.net/bible.html

3. "Holy Moses! PBS documentary suggests Exodus not real" at http://blogs.orlandosentinel.com/entertainment_tv_tvblog/2008/07/bibles-buried-s.html

4. Albright, William Foxwell. The Archaeology of Palestine. Pelican Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England, 1960, p. 127, 128. Cited by Rabbi Glenn Harris, www.gospeloutreach.net/bible.html

5. Howard LaFay, "Ebla: Splendor of an unknown Empire," National Geographic, December 1978, pp. 735. "The people of the ancient Near East erected their cities on strategic sites with plentiful water. As a result, after destruction at the hands of pillaging armies--and to weaker cities this came as often a once a generation-- the population tended to rebuild on the ruins. Excavating a TEL is like slicing a stack of pancakes; each stratum, with its embedded trove of artifacts, encapsulates history from one catastrophe to the next." (735-736, 740, 754)

6. http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/el-amarna-letters.html

7. www.gospeloutreach.net/bible.html

8. John N. Wilford, "House of David' Inscription: Clues to a Dark Age," New York Times, November 16, 1993. First reported by Dr. Avraham Biran, an archeologist at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion in Jerusalem.

9. The Development of the Aramaic Script (Joseph Naveh’s classic work), http://canterbridge.org/2007/11/18/reviewing-joseph-naveh-the-development-of-the-aramaic-script

10. Sargon king of Assyria at http://www.biblehistory.net/newsletter/sargon.htm

11. Seymour Gitin, Trude Dothan, and Joseph Naveh, "Ekron Identity Confirmed," Archaeology, January/February 1998.

12. Free, Joseph. Archaeology and Bible History. Scripture Press, Wheaton, IL, 1969, pg. 1.

13. Matthew Maury’s search for the secret of the seas at www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v11/i3/maury.asp

14.  http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/persianempir1/a/persiaintro_4.htm

15. http://www.middleeast.com/tyre.htm

16. S. Fred Singer and Dennis T. Avery, Unstoppable Global Warming (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2007), p. 4, 129, 244. Find more specific information at www.reasons.org/resources/fff/new_articles/index.shtml: "...climatologist Kevin Birdwell seeks answers to mysteries of human history via climatological records.... Paleoclimatology—the science dealing with the weather of past ages—often supports or sheds new light on biblical narrative. Birdwell says: 'Analysis of pollen, ice cores, tree rings, coral bands, carbon-14, uranium series dating, and ocean sediment gives us a window to the past. Recent advances in tree ring studies, for example, allow a more precise calibration of carbon-14 records, thus fine tuning dates of some documented events.”


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